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Federal Act / 25 May Retrieved 10 Feb http://www. ccivil_03/_Ato//Decreto/Dhtm Brazil. ES State. rurais localizadas em Itu e Sarapuí, SP, conforme a Lei Federal n°/12, Lei primeira versão foi editada em , através do Decreto Federal n° 26 jul. 2Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas (CCNE), Programa de Decreto № Araranguá.

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Bird diversity and conservation in the southern coast of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Coastal lagoons and their surrounding habitats often harbour high biodiversity and some of the most threatened ecosystems in the world. However, in the Neotropics the biodiversity is often poorly described, lacking even inventories of species which therefore limits the assessment of threats and the stablishment of efficient conservation measures.

We present here lists of bird species recorded at ten sites along the under-studied coastal lagoons of southern Santa Catarina, Brazil, collected mainly from October to March We present quantitative data for endemic and threatened species, identify migratory status and highlight distributional decrwto. In total, we recorded species encompassing 63 families, including twelve species of conservation concern, 11 endemic to the Atlantic Forest or Pampas zoogeographical provinces and 38 migrants.

We provide new decrto of seven rare species in Santa Catarina Larus atlanticus, Calidris pusilla, Aramides ypecaha, Bubo virginianus, Limnornis curvirostris, Phacellodomus ferrugineigula and Pseudocolopteryx flaviventris and report the first evidence of occurrence of Schoeniophylax phryganophilus for the State.

Based on our findings, we discuss the regional diversity and conservation of the avifauna.

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Coastal lagoons and their surrounding environments frequently form complex mosaics of aquatic and terrestrial ecossystems that harbor high biodiversity Esteves et al. The high productivity of such wetlands provides essencial ecosystemic services to humankind such as water supply and fishing resources Esteves et al. One of the largest complex of lagoons in the Neotropical region is found in the southern coast of Brazil, ranging from southern Santa Catarina state to southern Rio Grande do Sul state Burger, These ecosystems have been intensively modified in southern Brazil due to human occupation, agriculture, pollution, and introduction of exotic species Esteves et al.

Despite this importance, most bird inventories or related studies are from the southern portion of these wetlands i. After Saint-Hilaire, some few naturalists visited the region to collect specimens which are roughly listed in classical catalogues e.

Here we carried out bird inventories in ten sites in the southern coast of Santa Catarina. We provide a qualitative checklist of birds, highlighting endemic and Nearctic, Austral and Neotropical migrants and provide data on habitats, abundances and sites of occurrence for threatened, novel and poorly known species for Santa Catarina. Based on our findings we discuss the importance of the region for bird conservation. In total, this region encompasses c.

The original landscape in this region was composed by mosaics of lowland forests, wetlands, restingas, grasslands, lagoons and oceanic sandy beaches Teixeira et al. Importantly, considerable portions of such natural habitats were replaced by cultivated fields mainly rice and cornplanted pastures, urban areas and plantations of the exotic trees Eucalyptus spp. Climate is subtropical humid without dry seasons with annual average temperature of Sampled areas varied from 0.

Surveys were carried out between October and March and consisted of one-day samplings, lasting from 3 to 10 h per site, mainly from In total, each site was sampled between 8 h and 70 h, summing up hours of fieldwork.

Coordinates, dates of field expeditions and habitats sampled in each site are described in Table 1. In each field expedition, all birds heard or seen with aid of binoculars in pre-existing trails and roads were identified.

Playbacks of voice-recordings of species potentially occurring in the area were used, especially to search for cryptic species. Photographs and voice-recordings obtained during fieldwork were archived in the website WikiAves www. In order to provide a more complete inventory, species undetected during field work but with previous records for these sites in the literature i. Details on localities of record, habitat, status of conservation, endemism, migration and voucher are provided.

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Classification of endemic species for Atlantic Forest and Pampas follows Bencke et al. Migrant species followed the list of migratory birds of Brazil Somenzari et al. For threatened species and distributional novelties, we provide details on number of individuals, habitats and dates of records. We considered distributional novelties in Santa Catarina as those species whose nearest record lies over km from our study sites or species previously unknown or known from less than five localities in this state i.

Both criteria follow Vizentin-Bugoni et al. Taxonomic nomenclature follows Piacentini et al. Overall, we recorded species encompassing 63 taxonomic families during field surveys Table 2. In addition, 22 species were added to the list through literature search and WikiAves records Appendixsumming species to the study area.

The only species endemic to Pampas was Limnornis curvirostris Gould, Nearctic migrants are two shearwaters Procellaridaeeight sandpipers Scolopacidaethree plovers Charadriidaeone tern Sternidaeone jaeger Stercorariidaeone cuckoo Cuculidaeone falcon Falconidae and one swallow Hirundinidae species.

Austral migrants are two albatrosses Diomedeidaeone petrel Procellaridaetwo plovers, one penguin Spheniscidaeone gull Lariidae and one mockingbird Mimidae species. Neotropical migrants are seven flycatchers Tyrannidaethree swallows, one vireo Vireonidae and one seedeater Thraupidae species Table 2.

On June 29 tha juvenile was photographed Fig. Init was recorded on June 13 th individualsAugust 31 st individualsSeptember 14 th 50 individualsOctober 6 th four individuals. Init was recorded on May 24 th 10 individualsJune 29 th two individualsJuly 26 th individuals; WAAugust 24 th 80 individuals and September 21 st four individuals.

Init was recorded on March 17 th three individualsApril 21 st three individuals; WAMay 19 th one individualSeptember 14 th one individual and December 21 st six individuals.

Init was recorded on February 15 th one individualMarch 29 th one individualJune 29 th three individualsJuly 26 th one individualAugust 24 th one individualOctober 19 th one individual; WANovember 22 nd one individual and December 13 th two individuals. Init was recorded on January 16 th one individual.

Init was recorded on January 9 th one individual and 15 th two individuals and August 28 th two individuals; WA Init was recorded on January 5 th four individuals and decretl th two individuals; WA and February 2 nd one individual.

All records made in patches of lowland forest, except one in an arbustive restinga Lagoa da Urussanga Velha. New records in this same 77830 were made on July 5 th seven individuals; Fig.

All records were in marshes dominated by Schoenoplectus californicus. On July 23 rd15 individuals along with six Xanthopsar flavus Gmelin, were photographed in this same locality Fig.

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Observations were made in overgrazed sandy grassland with sparse clumps of Baccharis trimera Less. DC and Pinus plantations. On July 23 rdsix individuals of Xanthopsar flavus along with 15 Xolmis dominicanus were photographed Fig. All records were in flooded grasslands and edges of marshes covered by Scirpus giganteus and Schoenoplectus californicus. On July 3 rdone individual was photographed Fig.

All records were in the edge of disturbed patches of lowland forest. On September 13 th and July 5 thup to two individuals were photographed Fig. All records were in marshes dominated by Scirpus giganteus with small patches of Schoenoplectus californicus. On July 5 thone individual was photographed Fig.

All records were in pastures with sparse shrubs. All records were in marshes dominated by Scirpus giganteus with sparse shrubs. On 26 th Julyvoice-records of one individual were obtained in marshes in the eastern border of Lagoa do Sombrio M.

Fedefal October 13 thtwo individuals were observed and one of them was photographed Fig. We present here a comprehensive update of the bird diversity and composition in feeral region of the coastal lagoons in southern Santa Catarina.

Proper comparisons of bird diversity between ours and previous studies from surrounding areas are limited due to major differences in sampling and habitats considered. In coastal wetlands of Rio Grande do Sul, for example, the presence of multiple habitats, e. Nevertheless, the total richness observed in our study can be considered intermediate in comparison to other coastal areas of southern Brazil: Other inventories in the coast of Santa Catarina e.

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For coastal wetland areas in Rio Grande do Sul, fedeeral richness varies from to species Vizentin-Bugoni et al. However, further inventories will likely reveal new species for the region.

The coast of southern Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul are contiguous and similar in habitat composition Burger, ; Menezes et al. However, most of the novel species to the region are currently common and locally widely distributed with numerous recent records on online databases e.

Some of these species represent recent range expansions in Santa Catarina as Eupetomena macroura Gmelin,Myiopsitta monachus Boddaert,Zenaida auriculata Des Murs, and Turdus leucomelas Vieillot, e.

We also recorded Schoeniophylax phryganophilus for the first time in Santa Catarina and presented the first records of Aramides ypecaha and Limnornis curvirostris in the field, which were to date known in fderal state only by single unpublished museum specimens.

Larus atlanticus, Bubo virginianus and Phacellodomus ferrugineigula are known to the state by only one Pacheco et al. We also reported here the third and the first known populations of the globally threatened Xolmis dominicanus and Xanthopsar flavus, respectively, for the coast of Santa Catarina.

Three threatened species, namely Larus atlanticus, Xolmis dominicanus and Xanthopsar flavus, were only scarsely recorded in the region and may be considered occasional visitors. On the other hand, native habitats play an important role for the other nine threatened species in our study area.

Lowland forests harbour high decrefo of the vulnerable Phylloscartes kronei and other eight resident least concern species endemic to the Atlantic Forest.

Marshy areas surrounding lagoons may be relevant in Santa Catarina to sustain high numbers of wetland-dependent species as the regionally threatened Tachuris rubrigastra and other least concern species as Pseudocolopteryx spp. Notably, some bird species previously recorded in the region were not found in this study and the reasons may be diverse. Although some few species were likely undetected due to their cryptic habits, populations of other species may be decreasing or have gone locally extinct.

This may be the case of species like: Additionally, the rate of records of some aquatic and wetland dependent species seems to have considerably decreased in the last three decades.

Other aquatic species of the families Podicipedidae i. In regard to migratory birds, the lack of previous comprehensive studies on these groups has apparently hampered the inclusion of 780 southern coast of Santa Catarina in conservation initiatives Bencke et al. For instance, an attempt to federa, important areas for Nearctic migratory birds in Brazil included adjacent Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina states, but excluded the southern coast of the latter Valente et al.

Our records of 18 shorebirds species plus six other species from literature decrto WikiAves sum up 24 species of Nearctic migrants for southern Santa Catarina; additional species are Numenius hudsonicus Latham, Silva,Calidris himantopus Bonaparte, Willrich et al. This high richness compared to other important stopover areas Valente et al. Thus, we strongly recommend that future initiatives on migratory birds carefully consider the southern coast of Santa Catarina, especially sandy beaches from Laguna to Passo de Torres.

In summary, we demonstrated that the region of the coastal lagoons of southern Santa Catarina harbours high bird richness, including several threatened, endemic and long-distance migratory species.

We believe this inventory presents crucial basic information useful to support further conservation strategies concerning this important coastal area in southern Brazil. The regional avifauna would be benefited by the implementation and proper management of the existing protected areas. We also encourage further surveys in such areas specially focused on assessing the abundances of endemic, threatened and migratory species.