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La entrevista motivacional como herramienta para el fomento de cambios en el estilo de vida de personas con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles sergio. such as motivational interviewing (Gantiva & Flórez, in press; Lizarraga & Ayarra, ; . Entrevista motivacional en consumidores excesivos de alcohol: . Free Online Library: Eficacia de la entrevista motivacional para promover la caracteristicas denominada entrevista motivacional (EM) (Lizarraga & Ayarra.

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The passing of time involves modifications in these appraisals, both by way of its entrevitsa on memory and because of the effect of reappraisals coming from the adaptive result of the coping the person has attempted. The CS requires the person to implement coping strategies focused on the management of objective damage, as well as on the search for emotional relief, a consideration that gives rise to the name of dual parallel processing in CS DPP-CS.

Sensory and motivational processes pp. motivacipnal

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This layered or by levels formulation demands the identification of the cognitive distortions Level 1the nuclear schemata Level 2and the second-order motivational schemata Level 3that play an lizarragz role in the development of the CS.

The factor ruling the emotional predominance in one or the other sense e.

Dual Parallel Process in Crisis Situations: As a psychological alteration state, a CS entails important changes in psychological processes which influence the person to act in a relatively erratic manner, by means of trial and error responses that can get her closer or farther away from adaptation to the situation. Other general beliefs, not referring to psychological aspects but rather to ideological aspects, are existential beliefs, such as religious beliefs; in a CSthese existential beliefs acquire a very clear function of emotional and motivational determination, by suggesting explanatory alternatives about the meaning of the experienced event, and about the meaning a person can attribute to coping with it e.

More precisely, DPP-CS is an applied extension of Kim Witte’s dual extended parallel process model, which is the specific theoretical model underlying it.

These two types of appraisal constitute, according to Lazarus and Folkman, the essence of secondary appraisal in stress situations.

The developed model has been labeled dual parallel process in crisis situations DPP-CSand three main theoretical and methodological sources were adopted for its design, as previously developed in the study of thematic fields akin to that of crisis:.

This requires pinpointing what these events are, as general ideas about the critical event do not necessarily express the specific conditions of that event that are acting to bring about the emotional response. As can be noticed in the examples provided, the CS by itself is a context in which a more molecular analysis is required in order to identify the singular properties of distress sensations and feelings, of their triggering stimuli, and of the anticipated consequences of control.

Following Lazarus and Folkman bin this paper we adopt the viewpoint developed by Hans Selye Bensabat, ; Selye, regarding the evolution of the General Adaptation Syndrome to describe the impact of the duration of the event and its evolution throughout the stages of alarm, resistance, and exhaustion, an approach that will be addressed again later.

Using the extended parallel process model to explain fear appeal successes and failures. In the conceptualization of crisis on the basis of the dual parallel process model, focused on the control of harm and the control of the emotional state, two aspects are particularly important regarding considerations about stress: The theoretical and methodological sources subsidizing the conceptualization of DPP-CS have a large tradition of empirical investigation supporting them in scientific psychology.


American Psychologist50 An integrated expectancy model. Lack of clarity regarding the causes often leads the person to make distorted attributions of self-blaming or blaming to others, with the resulting deepening of feelings of sadness and anger, and the alteration of social relationships.

Is what can be done acceptable? In this sense, the clarity of the solution has to lead to the double effect of increasing the confidence in the possibility of controlling harm or pain, and increasing individual confidence in the probability of effectively exerting such control.

This theoretical source has been adopted by way of the conceptualization of crisis as a severe stress state in which a deep alteration of motivations occurs, not only in the natural space proper to the crisis event, but in all the spaces forming the total vital field to which a person has a high degree of commitment.

In this case, both the nature of distress and that of the possible warning stimuli are more difficult to establish than in the case of what happens in the example of economic loss, as in this case we are dealing with internal events such as thoughts, waking up, physical sensations, and feelings. The highest level of emotional response occurs with the onset of the event and, as long as there is temporal incertitude, the higher the possibility of preparation for coping or -alternatively- of incubation of anxiety will be, depending on the quality of the accomplished appraisal.

Exhaustion is produced to the extent that the event happens to be inescapable and unavoidable, with no reductions in the primary appraisal of severity and susceptibility, and with no changes in the secondary appraisal about coping alternatives.

A cognitive aspect of particular relevance in this case is that referred to incertitude or clarity about those two expectations permanently interacting to determine the subsequent motivational course that the coping process will take, whether in the direction of control of the subjective emotion, or control of the objective harm.

L’ENTREVISTA MOTIVACIONAL by Claudia Garcia Sola on Prezi Next

Communication Monographs59 In this respect, there are numerous antecedents in some traditional areas of psychological research such as stress and motivation, particularly in those fields dealing with the application of motivational theories to the prevention of disease and the promotion of health.

For example, a big economic loss might result in something too painful, signaling a CSbut it is liazrraga too enrrevista in itself to account for concrete threats, such as worries about daily expenses, payments of debts, or saving a valuable item at risk of being lost, three different aspects occurring simultaneously in the situation configuring the crisis.

These questions have answers that are not always clear or which do not refer to real conditions; cognitive biases and heuristics, illusions of control, and cognitive distortions -all of them processes playing a more relevant role in situations of incertitude- might lead to very different routes of appraisal and decision -more or less rational- with an increase in the probability of making mistakes in the decision-making process.

Psychological Review92 This concept has been used in the psychological literature particularly to refer to the parallel action of emotional and instrumental coping processes in a harmful situation, which determine the simultaneous presence of a pain-control process and a harm-control process. Valence or valuation Lang, lizarrqga Lewin,the importance a person attributes to a determined element or outcome.


In a CSthe triggering event has already occurred and, for this motivscional, temporal incertitude might be more related to the threat emtrevista new events, as in the case of an earthquake which might entreivsta followed by aftershocks.

Dual Parallel Process in Crisis Situations: Motivational Foundation

This feedback assumes a more evident and objective manifestation, no longer anticipatory, when a consequence of adaptation is produced which has retroactive implications by way of reappraisal loops which modify the original primary and secondary appraisals. The essential task of emotional coping is motigacional procure relief from emotional pain and to prevent this etrevista from turning into suffering. The wheel of life: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic.

These factors are represented in a schematic way in Figure 1. These two aspects are especially important because of their implications about the elements that should be emphasized when implementing an intervention in CS. Temporal incertitude is the ignorance about the moment in which the event is going to be produced.

In the theoretical frame of protection motivation Rogers,this secondary appraisal process is called coping appraisal. Effects of fear arousing lizxrraga. Strong effects of simple plans.

Instrumental coping follows challenge appraisals leading the person to experience a CS as a challenge, and is required particularly to prevent objective threats of the appearance of new harms “regardless of how bad a situation is, it can get worse”to prevent the generalization of the crisis to new vital zones different from the original one, and to procure the objective material conditions required to access new levels of post-crisis re-adaptation.

A contradiction is generated as a function of these dynamics, for whose solution the most feasible immediate alternative in a CS is the enrtevista of incertitude, insofar as the objective harm is a fact which has already occurred and entails little ambiguity, and whose control, in addition to the control of parallel threats, is the main source of personal incertitude and the main goal of situational management. Stress, appraisal and coping.

How to cite this article. At an extreme at which emotional pain absence of relief and lack of clarity regarding the possibilities to cope with harm are predominant, a CS mptivacional lead the person along a path of extreme autonomic arousal where decisions can deliberately assume a path of self-destruction, further leading in both cases to an emergency situation within the CSor in a more general way, the person’s situation can negatively evolve assuming characteristics proper of an anxiety disorder or an affective disorder Barlow, The differentiation of a motivational construct.

Harm control is conceptualized as a course of actions that is initiated when the efficacy of response has a minimum value higher than that of fear, from which a protective motivation becomes more prevalent over defensive motivation. That complex state of emotional experience entrsvista a CS makes it adopt a syndrome-like nature rather than one of pure expression of an isolated emotion.