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In the 8th century BC, India could be broadly understood in terms of five large regions viz. Madhyadesa (the middle country), Pratichya (western lands), Prachya. By the 6th century B.C. there were approximately 22 different Janapadas. The key points related to the Janapadas and the Mahajanapadas are. PDF | On Jan 1, , Karam Tej Sarao and others published Janapadas, Mahājanapadas, Kingdoms, and Republics.

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16 Mahajanapada and their capitals

Unlike the Puranas, the Mahabharata does not specify any geographical divisions of ancient India, but does support the classification of certain janapadas as southern or northern. The first reference to the Angas is found in the Atharva-Veda where they find mahajanapaeas along with the MagadhasGandharis and the Mujavats, apparently as a despised people.

Latin cognate genusEnglish cognate kin.

Early modern period — Each of these Janapadas was named after the Kshatriya tribe or the Kshatriya Jana who had settled therein. The original Kamboja was located in eastern Oxus country as neighbor to Bahlika, but with time, some clans of the Kambojas appear to have crossed the Hindukush and planted colonies on its southern side also.

Janapadas and Mahajanapadas

He omits the nations from Uttarapatha like the Kamboja and Gandhara. The existence of Paura and Janapada itself is a controversial matter. There was, however, a struggle for supremacy between king Pasenadi Prasenajit and king Ajatashatru of Magadha which was finally settled once the confederation of Lichchavis became aligned with Magadha. Ancient Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya [1] make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics which had evolved and flourished in a belt stretching from Gandhara in the northwest to Anga in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and included parts of the trans- Vindhyan region, [2] prior to the rise of Buddhism in India.

Avantiputra, the king of Surasena, was the first among the chief disciples of Buddha, through whose help Buddhism gained ground in Mathura country. Kosala was ultimately merged into Magadha when Vidudabha was Kosala’s ruler. It was located on a southern high road, the Dakshinapatha.

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The defeated king, in most cases, would be free to rule his own kingdom, without maintaining any contact with the victorious king. The country was divided into Uttara-Panchala and Dakshina-Panchala.

16 Mahajanapada and their capitals – General Knowledge Today

Pargiter believed that it was in the vicinity of Banda, Uttar Pradesh. Retrieved 28 June It had the river Ganges for its southern, the river Gandak Narayani for its eastern, and the Himalaya mountains for its northern boundary. Oxford University Press — via Google Books. A bitter line in the Brahmin Puranas laments that Magadhan emperor Mahapadma Nanda exterminated mahajznapadas Kshatriyasnone worthy of the name Kshatriya being left thereafter.

Brahmarshi-desha’the county of the holy sages,’ includes the territories of the KurusMatsyasPanchalas and Shurasenas i. Aitareya Brahmana locates the Kurus in Madhyadesha and also refers to the Uttarakurus as living beyond the Himalayas.

Other great kings were Prithu, Harishchandra, and Dilip, who are each mentioned in different Puranas, Ramayan, and Mahabharat. China was mentioned as a kingdom known as Cina, often grouped with Mleccha kingdoms.

Udayana’s mother, Queen Mrigavatiis notable for being one of the earliest known female rulers in Indian history. Lectures on the Ancient History of India from mahjaanapadas B. The Mahajana;adas Rebellionc. Mathura, the capital of Surasena, was also known at the time of Megasthenes as the centre of Krishna worship.

Early medieval Chalukya Dynastyc. The Pre-Buddhist north-west region of the Indian sub-continent was divided into several Janapadas mahajanapadad from each other by boundaries.

Janapada – Wikipedia

Hittite pedan”place”. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagara modern Bairat which is said to have been named after its founder king Virata. Various kula s clans developed within the jana, each xnd its own chief. Initially king Udayana was opposed to Buddhismbut later became a follower of Buddha and made Buddhism the state religion. The Coinage of Ancient India. The king also enforced law and order in his kingdom by punishing the guilty.


Classical Maurya Dynastyc. Political History of Pre-Buddhist India. The fact that Janapada is derived from Jana points to an early stage of land-taking by the Jana tribe for a settled way of life.

According to the political scientist Sudama Misra, the name of the Panchala janapada suggests that it was a fusion of five pancha janas. Iron Age — BC. New kingdoms were formed when a major clan produced more than one King in a generation. Ancient Madrasian Culture Soanianc. Though a well known monarchical people in the earlier period, the Kurus are known to have switched to a republican form of government during jjanapadas 6th to 5th centuries BCE.

The Janapada were highest political unit in Ancient India during this period; these polities were usually monarchical though some followed a form republicanism and succession was hereditary.

The capital city of Pataliputra was bound in the north by the river Ganges, in the east by the river Champa, in the south by the Vindhya mountains and in the west by the river Sona. The Magadha was one of the most prominent and prosperous of mahajanapadas.

It had its capital at Madhura or Mathura. In the 4th century BCE, Kautiliya ‘s Arthashastra also attests the Panchalas as following the Rajashabdopajivin king consul constitution. The Buddhist canonical texts – Anguttara NikayaDigha NikayaChulla-Niddesaalthough with some differences between them, primarily refer to the following 16 mahajanapadas “great janapadas”: Chulla-Niddesaanother ancient text of the Buddhist canon, adds Kalinga to the list and substitutes Yona for Gandhara, thus listing the Kamboja and the Yona as the only Mahajanapadas from Uttarapatha.

Raychaudhuri, as a HistorianNorthern Book Centre, p. University of Calcutta, pp.